Matheson may refer to:
- Alecto Matheson, an officer of the Royal Manticoran Navy.
- Matheson, an officer of the People's Navy.
- John Brown Matheson, a freed slave who took the name of the Havenite officer.
- Boadicea Matheson, John Brown's wife and Betsy Ross' mother.
- Betsy Ross Matheson, their daughter.