Genetic engineering, also referred to as gengineering, was the specific manipulation of a living being's genetic material.
Anderman Empire Edit
The planet Kuan Yin had an ecosystem with a microorganism that proved deadly to terrestrial crops. As a result, the human population was about to perish, when in the 16th Century PD, Gustav Anderman brought in genetic engineers to produce crops which could flourish there. The success of their efforts was the base for Anderman's popularity which resulted in the founding of the Anderman Empire. (HH6)
The Beowulf Life Sciences Code, which limited genetic engineering to the purpose of curing and counteracting existing conditions and discouraged the intentional "improvement" of the species, originated from the planet Beowulf. It was a result of the controversy started by Leonard Detweiler and his followers, and was enforced, among others, by the Biological Survey Corps. (SI2)
Many of the colonists who founded or later settled in the Star Kingdom of Manticore were genetically engineered to a certain degree, including the House of Winton and the Harrington Clan. Sphinx was a moderately heavy gravity planet, and those who had been genetically engineered found it more tolerable, or were ever attracted for just that reason. In addition, some Terran plants required genetic modifications to thrive in the Sphinxian environment. (HH9)
San Martin Edit
San Martin, in the Trevor's Star system, was most likely the highest gravity planet ever colonized by man. Outside of artificially reduced environments, every San Marino citizen required genetic engineering to live on the planet. They were characteristically heavily muscled and solidly built, never tall and slender.
The star nation of Mesa was founded by renegade Beowulfans, led by Leonard Detweiler, who rejected the Beowulf Code and built an economy principally based on genetic engineering and genetic slavery. The "product" marketed by its largest corporation, Manpower, was universally genetically engineered to suit the uses intended by target markets. On Mesa itself, there were both slave descended secondary citizens (essentially all having genetically engineered ancestors) and slaves themselves, as well as several classes of citizens, each of whom was genetically engineered as well. Mesa probably had the highest level of genetic engineering in the human-settled galaxy, but its methods were rejected and outlawed by most of humanity. (CS1, SI2)